The so-called building curtain wall is the outer wall enclosure of the building, which is not load-bearing and hung like a curtain, so it is also called a “curtain wall”. It is a light wall with a decorative effect commonly used in modern large and high-rise buildings. How many materials are there for curtain walls? At present, the curtain walls on the market are mainly divided into three categories: stone, glass, and metal. Let’s focus on the dry hanging technology of stone curtain walls today.
● Dry hanging method of stone curtain wall
There are seven dry hanging methods for stone curtain walls: single leg short slot, double leg short slot, steel pin, through the slot, small unit, back bolt, and supporting plate. Among several curtain wall forms, “short trough type” and “back bolt type” are the most common.
1. Single leg short trough dry hanging method
The single-leg short groove type is to fix two adjacent stone panels together on the “t” shaped clamping strip, which is made of stainless steel or aluminum alloy, and the clamping strip is fixed with the skeleton. But now the “t” shaped card strip has been eliminated, and only the “L” shaped card strip can be used.
2. Double leg short trough dry hanging method
The double leg short groove dry hanging method is an improvement of the single-leg short groove method. It also fixes the adjacent two stone panels on the “dry” shaped clamping strip. The “dry” shaped clamping strip is generally extruded by aluminum alloy and fixed with the skeleton.
3. Steel pin dry hanging method
The steel pin type dry hanging method, also known as the needle inserting method, is the earliest and simplest method in dry hanging stone technology. The steel pin type is divided into two side connections and four side connections. The structural feature is that two adjacent stone panels are fixed on the same steel pin, the steel pin is fixed on the connecting plate, and the connecting plate is fixed with the skeleton.
4. Steel pin dry hanging method
The trough hanging method generally adopts aluminum alloy SE composite hanging parts (some adopt T-shaped or butterfly hanging parts), and long grooves are opened on the upper and lower sides of each stone slab, with the groove depth less than 15mm, the groove width should be 6mm, and the hanging part thickness should be more than 4mm.
5. Small unit dry hanging method
The small unit dry hanging method is a removable building curtain wall that is connected by a metal subframe, various single plates, metal hooks, columns, and beams.
The stones in the small unit dry hanging process are connected to the skeleton through aluminum alloy strips, but the adjacent stones are independently connected to the skeleton (aluminum alloy main beam). This connection mode has completely changed the physical performance, design method, processing method, and construction technology of the traditional dry hanging stone curtain wall.
6. Back bolt type
The back bolt dry hanging method is to connect the stone decorative panel with the keel structure, and then fix the keel structure on the building structure with the help of embedded parts. At the same time, the hanging parts of the back bolt and the stone decorative panel are effectively fixed with the help of bottom hole expansion technology.
This method can effectively avoid the slotting problem at the joint of the two, weaken the reaction of the stone veneer to the keel structure, and avoid the local damage of the stone to a great extent.
7. Supporting plate type
The connection form of supporting plate type is the connection of aluminum alloy supporting plate, and the bonding is completed in the factory with reliable quality. The installation structure is a hanging structure, which can be adjusted in three dimensions during installation. The flexible connection can be realized and seismic performance can be improved by using elastic rubber pad installation.
The above seven ways are to use a metal pendant to directly hang the facing stone on the wall or empty hanging on the steel frame, which is only suitable for solving the problem of regular surface materials. How can irregular patchwork materials realize the dry hanging of the curtain wall?
● Realization of the dry hanging of irregular broken materials
1) The expansion bolts are drilled and installed on the original building structure, and then the 5 angle steel is fixed on the wall. According to the demand and mechanical calculation, the installation density and depth are determined to form the steel skeleton.
2) Punch 3 ~ 5mm galvanized steel sheet into honeycomb plate, and determine the size and density of holes according to the actual situation on site. Generally, the minimum area of materials shall be determined according to the average size of irregular surface decorative materials, and at least 5 holes shall be covered to ensure the installation firmness of irregular surface decorative materials.
3) Stainless steel tail drilling screws are used on-site to fix the galvanized honeycomb steel plate on the welded steel framework, and flexible structural adhesive is applied to the irregular surface decorative materials. The pasting position needs to be aligned and pressed with force until part of the flexible structural adhesive overflows from the hole of the galvanized honeycomb steel plate.
4) After the installation of irregular surface decoration materials is completed, after the flexible structural adhesive is dried and solidified, some irregular surface decoration materials are reinforced twice with drill tail screws, and the resulting surface holes are repaired with toner cement.
5) After mixing with glue cement, the gap between irregular surface decorative materials shall be caulked.
2. Key points for process
1) Safety considerations
Considering the possibility of falling off of curtain wall materials, it is necessary to test the adhesion between flexible structural adhesive and steel plate.
The base steel plate drilling method is adopted to realize the glue overflow hook method to hang the irregular curtain wall material technology, so as to ensure the adhesion between the finishing material and the steel plate.
2) Back anti peeling treatment
Multi-angle oblique cutting and slotting are adopted to form a groove on the back of the material. When the groove is filled with structural glue, a torque hook shape will be formed, so as to increase the adhesion between the glue and the surface material and ensure that it is not easy to fall off.3) Detailed design and adjustment of dry hanging structural materials
Fix the structural materials on the base structure of the indoor and outdoor curtain wall dry hanging system with irregular materials by means of physical anchor bolts.
Considering that the height and area of indoor and outdoor curtain walls are too high, the self-weight of single surface decoration material is large, and the accumulation of multiple plates is easy to cause the surface layer to be broken or stripped.
The surface material can be anchored with the base steel plate by the way of a hidden anchor bolt on the layered local surface to prevent the surface material from breaking and sagging.
4) Prevent oxidation of pores
In consideration of the easy corrosion of steel sheet holes, the following methods can be adopted for protection treatment:
3. The advantages of the dry hanging of broken materials
1) It can solve the installation difficulty of curtain walls with irregular pieces.
2) Safety improvement: the ultra-thin metal plate is used as the base to reduce the self-weight of the structure and reduce the impact on the base. Combined with the triple stabilization technology, the surface material is prevented from breaking and falling.
3) Economic benefits: the surface material is cheap, not easy to consume, lightweight, low freight, and the later maintenance are simpler than natural stone.
Well, let’s talk about the dry hanging method of the marble curtain wall. I hope you can send me an email about the shortcomings of email@example.com.